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In ac libero urna. Suspendisse sed odio ut mi auctor blandit. Duis luctus nulla metus.

Dating a genius man

Dating a genius man

The Minoan adoption of this foreign deity 2 was proposed by Sir Arthur Evans, a borrowing which was vigorously debated until seemingly con- firmed by the discovery of three primitive Genii on Middle Minoan sealings from Phaistos and Knossos ' An earlier version of this paper, 'Notes on the Transforma- tion of Taweret into the Minoan Genius', was presented at the 6th International Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory: My warmest thanks are also due to Prof.

Warren and Prof. Younger who read preliminary drafts of this paper and made many valuable com- ments. In addition to the standard abbreviations I have used the following: Apotropaia H. Altenmiiller, Die Apotropaia und die Goiter Mitteldgyptens diss. Munchen Kenna, Cretan Seals Oxford Genius M. Genies minoens C. Magical Knives G. Magic Ivories F. Zakro Master J. Win- ter, 'Sitzungsberichte der Archaolog. Gesellschaft', AA , Although the borrowing has recently once again been questioned, this latest challenge, as I hope to demonstrate, is based on an insufficient understanding of the contemporary Egyptian evidence.

Yet Aegean scholars habitually publish images from the Middle Kingdom together with those from say the Late Period as if they were parallels, as if ancient Egypt were — alone of all civilizations — an unchanging monolith. The arguments for and against an Egyptian inheritance are discussed in detail in M. Gill, The Minoan Genius: Birmingham University , , and in its subsequent extract Genius 4, and n. His main arguments are based on the lion-headed aspect of the Minoan Genius for lion-headed Taweret, see below p.

We also hope to disprove Gill's extreme scepticism Genius and supra n. On proposed Anatolian and Syrian connections, see below p. Farkas, P. Harper, E. Harrison, eds. It is methodologically unsound to project the later goddess onto the earlier, and even more dubious to attempt to interpret the Minoan Genius in the light of Taweret's later manifestations.

By plunging into the minutiae of her iconographical evolution, I hope to display convincingly the Egyp- tian origin and direct importation of the Minoan Genius. This evidence then allows us to approach the next issue with some confidence: The main aim of this study is to employ comparative contemporary evidence to better understand the process of cultural transmission, but prehistorians and Egyptologists might find this a useful case history in its own right.

An unusually detailed early amulet Fig. Marinatos, 'Polydipsion Argos' in L. Palmer and J. Chadwick, eds. Gerties minoens , connects the Genius with the Taweret of the Field of Offerings, and death, despite their being no contemporary evidence for such associations. Middle Kingdom Taweret amulets e. Her image on scarabs is even more schematic: On later scarabs e. Middle Kingdom Taweret can more closely be studied on the so-called magical knives e.

The knives are incised with apotropaic figures and frequently short texts. The in- scriptions show that they belonged to women and children, and were intended to provide 'protection by night and protection by day'. See n. Jequier, 'Notes et Remarques' RevTrav 30, , F Petrie Objects of Daily Use, London, , 40 interpreted protection as the abstract subdual of evil. He also developed M. Murray's theory that the knives were horoscopes of specific individuals 'The Astrological Character of the Egyptian Magical Wands,' PSBA 28, , but Steindorff Magical Knives 50 contends that 'the majority of the pictures have nothing whatsoever to do with constellations and, in any event, the words pronounced by the figures themselves state that they offer protection'; indeed Petrie himself admitted that Taweret, the most common 'sign' was probably merely protective.

The earliest Middle Kingdom hippopotamus demon ca. Breasts, if shown at all, are always pendulous though it is uncertain if this is a sign of pregnancy or even of 13 her female nature. Another early characteristic is 11 Her popularity in the Middle Kingdom is also attested by numerous theophoric personal names; Ipy with 'Taweret' de- terminent on stele in the masculine 'Son-of and feminine 'Daughter-of: The knives first appear in the late-llth Dynasty but are characteristic of the 12th and 13th Dynasties.

Apotropaia uses — and for the sake of simplicity, I follow — a high chronology, dating the 12th Dynasty to BC. Astrom, ed. High, Middle or Low? Goteborg If I often use absolute dates, rather than magical knife typology A-B-C-D , these dates must nonetheless be understood only as conventional markers with a margin of-error of 50 years either way; see SAK 13, , Since her breasts are not realistic and are apparently derived from a male fecundity form, the breasts and enlarged belly probably have definite iconographic meaning: Also cf.: Other leonine features, however, become more pronounced over time, until her body becomes assimilated to that of the lion-demon in the years between and Without doubt, however, the most useful — and precise — feature for charting her passage through the Middle Kingdom is the changing contour and decoration of her dorsal appendage.

Altenmuller's four Types essentially are based on the iconographical evolution of the dorsal appendage Appendix I; Fig. All in all, we can have some confidence that Altenmuller's typology extends beyond the magical knives, providing a framework which can be used with due care in the Middle Kingdom and into the Xlllth Dynasty.

Though it is often asserted that the crocodile is the source for Tawe- ret's dorsal appendage, there is no early evidence showing that her appendage does in fact result from the fusion of a crocodile's tail into her back.

This is a typological classification with each stage somewhat idealized; perfect fits are rare and there are some opposing tendencies even within the same Type. It is nonetheless surprisingly easy to fit most Middle Kingdom Taweret-objects into Altenmuller's categories.

Jequier [supra n. The exhortations could suggest a 6 earliest amulets and scarabs already show an abstract dorsal appendage Fig. Two out of nine faience figures from the Temple aux obelisques at Byblos carry clinging crocodiles PI.

Middle Kingdom Cylinder Seal. Dunand Fouilles de Byblos, II, , , 53, 54, See also a recently-excavated statuette of crocodile-carrying Taweret from the Middle Kingdom palace at Bubastis which, unfortunately, cannot be more closely dated: The publication n.

As she rightly stressed, it is exactly the early stages which must be studied to account for the Genius's origins, physical appearance, and function Genius The design appears to be a close re- production of an Egyptian original, including the elongated hippopotamus head and dorsal appendage of Taweret.

Even the vegetation, as Gill pointed out, has an Egyptian 'flavour' Genius 2. The swollen belly, pendulous breast, and lion's hind-legs are characteristic of nearly all Middle Kingdom Tawerets. The Genius's stance is instruc- 19 The Phaistos sealings were found in a closed destruction deposit though not in situ marking the end of the third phase of the First Palace: There has already been time, however, between model and copy for the Genius to be some- what Minoanized: The demon's uplifted hands grasp the ewer by base and handle in the Egyptian offering gesture PI.

Can we date this proto-Genius's Egyptian model Table 1? The mouth is open, showing bared sharp 21 teeth. Taweret grimaces with clenched teeth on A- and some B-type magical knives and she is seen intermittently with a rictus until but not after ca. One amusing detail is also useful for dating: Taweret's protruding belly button.

Such prominent navels are fairly common on A- and B-type Tawerets Fig. Thus, this feature disappears no later than The most useful dating criterion should be, of course, the dorsal appendage Appendix I. The up- per part of the appendage is lost but, below, we can see a broad tail on which numerous oblique dashes 22 point downwards from right to left.

The dorsal appendage is long, ending below the rump, roughly at mid-leg height if not lower. Such filled-in, ex- ceptionally long and broad tails are best paralleled on magical knives in Boston ca. Ashmolean Mus. CMS II. Nonetheless, the fol- lowing features are clear: The appendage extends over the head but does not touch the back of the head, a diagnostic feature of Type C ca. Cross-hatched decoration does not appear on any magical knife, but is closely paralleled by the plaited appendages of two painted Tawerets on a wooden box PI.

No actual example of this type of libation jug exists, but a similar high-footed jug is depicted on a contemporary prism from the Mallia Stoneworking Atelier CMS II. Their protruding navels suggests a date early in the dynasty cf.: Knossos HM , probably between ca. The salient features are:

Dating a genius man

Altenrmiller translates Apotropaia One amusing detail is also useful for dating: Shaw, AA 87 fig. Bourriau, Pharaohs and Mortals Cambridge On thematic formulae, see J. Baurain would no doubt reply with some justice Ginies minoens 97 that non-leonine Genii generally appear on seals, which he considers objects of petty and utilitarian value. Did she insert herself into Minoan religion as a tabula rasa on which the Minoans could inscribe their religious or 40 social Dating a genius man Other leonine features, however, become more pronounced over time, until her body becomes assimilated to that of the lion-demon in the years between and Taweret may have developed earlier, Dating a genius man, especially in 29 other media. On later scarabs e.